阅读策略之一:难句把握策略


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  除了词汇量较大以外,语句结构复杂也是托福阅览的妨碍之一。面对难句,有必要敏捷掌握其骨干和要点,由于考试时触及答案的主要是语句的骨干和要点,关于语句简化题(sentence simplification)特别如此。要掌握难句的骨干和要点,首先要澄清它们的类型。简而言之,托福中的难句主要包括下列类型:

  1.定语(包括后置定语与定语从句)

  2.同位语

  3.并列结构

  4.that引导的各种从句

  5.刺进结构

  6.独立主格

  7.倒装句

  8.着重句

  9.虚拟语气

  ?关于不同类型的难句,掌握骨干的办法也不一样。以倒装句为例,主要有下列状况:

  1.方位副词放在句首

  Herein lay the beginning of what ultimately turned from ignorance to denial of the value of nutritional therapies in medicine。

  2.介词放在句首

  Among the species of seabirds that use the windswept cliffs of the Atlantic coast of Canada in the summer to mate, lay eggs, and rear their young are common murres, Atlantic puffins, black-legged kittiwakes, and northern gannets。

  3. 形容词放在句首

  Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle as well: that the medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with which sculptors must bring own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony。

  4.过去分词放在句首

  Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as “silent”, the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent。

  5.现在分词放在句首

  Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans。

  ? 语句倒装的目的主要有两个:

  一是被提早的部分被着重,如上述的第四句:Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as “silent”,其中的accustomed依照正常语序应该放在are之后:Though we are accustomed to speaking of the films made before 1927 as “silent”。之所以将accustomed提早,是为了着重它。二是为了语句的平衡,否则将导致虎头蛇尾的作用,如上述的榜首句、第三句和第五句。以第五句为例,依照正常语序应该是:Fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans were missing until recently。可是这种语句结构比较糟糕,由于主语及其修饰语过长(从句首直到cetaceans),而谓语部分were missing until recently较短,简单造成虎头蛇尾的作用。第五句将missing提早,避免了这一现象。

  为了考试时能敏捷掌握语句的骨干,需求较多的阅览和剖析。

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