081. These writers, who can genuinely be said to have created a genre, the "railroad novel," are now mostly forgotten, their names having faded from memory.
The words "faded from" in line 21 are closest in meaning to
(A) grew in
(B) disappeared from
(C) remained in
(D) developed from
082. The engine that became standard on western steamboats was of a different and novel design. It was the work primarily of an unsung hero of American industrial progress, Oliver Evans (1755-1819) .
The word "novel" is closest in meaning to which of following?
083. The self-educated son of a Delaware farmer, Evans early became obsessed by the possibilities of mechanized production and steam power. As early as 1802 he was using a stationarysteam engine of high-pressure design in his mill. Engines of this type were not unknown, but before Evans they were generally considered impractical and dangerous.
The word "stationary" is closest in meaning to which of following?
084. In shallow western rivers the weight of vessel and engine was important; a heavy engine added to the problem of navigation.
The word "vessel" is closest in meaning to which of following?
085. The key concepts emerged about 1957. Townes and Arthur Schawlow, then at Bell Telephone Laboratories, wrote a long paper outlining the conditions needed to amplify stimulated emission of visible light waves.
The word "emerged" is closest in meaning to which of following?
The word "outlining" is closest in meaning to which of following?
086. On this perfect surface, the artist would sketch a composition with chalk, refine it with inks, and then begin the deliberate process of applying thin layers of egg tempera paint (egg yolk in which pigments are suspended) with small brushes.
The word "deliberate" is closest in meaning to which of following?
087. The quick-drying tempera demanded that the artist know exactly where each stroke be placed before the brush met the panel, and it required the use of fine brushes.
The word "demanded" is closest in meaning to which of following?
088. The painter or master who is credited with having created the painting may have designed the work and overseen its production, but it is highly unlikely that the artist's hand applied every stroke of the brush. More likely, numerous assistants, who had been trained to imitate the artist's style, applied the paint.
The word "imitate" is closest in meaning to which of following?
(D) believe in
089. On the other hand, when it comes to substantive-particularly behavioral- information, crows are less well known than many comparably common species and, for that matter, not a few quite uncommon ones: the endangered California condor, to cite one obvious example. There are practical reasons for this.
The word "comparably" is closest in meaning to which of following?
090. Being so educable, individual birds have markedly different interests and inclinations, strategies and scams.
The word "inclination" is closest in meaning to which of following?